The early Jewish rabbis taught that the book pictures God’s love for Israel. Early Christian writers took the same approach, but they replaced Israel with the Church.
One writer in the third century wrote a ten-volume commentary on Song of Solomon, telling how the book describes God’s love for Christians.” (Estes)
Bernard of Clairvaux preached not less than eighty sermons on the first two chapters.
“The chief speakers are not Solomon and the Shulamite… but Christ and his Church.” (Trapp)
The book is not mentioned in the NT at all.
The song mentions 22 names of plants and 15 names of animals.
The Song of Songs is a book of oriental poetry that is marked by special pictorial language. Here it is the pictorial language of love, full of flowery, sentimental and sometimes very vivid expressions.
Figures of speech that the lovers use may seem strange to people of a different language and culture, but in their original setting they were no doubt regarded as compliments of the highest order. The language of lovers is always extravagant, and in the Song of Songs the beauty and power of the language displays the intensity of human love in a way not found elsewhere in the Bible.
The book before us is called in the Hebrew השירים שיר Shir Hashshirim, “The Song of Songs;” or, “An Ode of the Odes:” which might be understood, “An Ode taken or selected from others of a similar kind;” or, “An Ode the most excellent of all others;” this being an idiom common to the Hebrew language: e.g., the God of gods is the supreme God; the Lord of lords, the supreme Lord; the King of kings, the supreme King; the heaven of heavens, the supreme or highest heaven. It may therefore be designed to express “a song of the utmost perfection; one of the best that existed, or had ever been penned.” (Clarke’s Commentary)
There is a considerable resemblance between the language of Solomon’s Song and that of the Book of Proverbs — especially the first nine chapters and those from Proverbs. 22. to 24..
Compare the following verses to the Book of Proverbs. Song of Solomon 5:6, with Proverbs 1:28—Song of Solomon 4:12, with Proverbs 5:15—Song of Solomon 4:5, with Proverbs 5:19—Song of Solomon 8:7, with Proverbs 6:34-35—Song of Solomon 6:9, with Proverbs 31:28; also for analogies of diction comp. in the Hebrew, Song of Solomon 4:9, with Proverbs 1:9—Song of Solomon 4:11, with Proverbs 5:3—Song of Solomon 1:2, with Proverbs 27:6—Song of Solomon 7:2, with Proverbs 25:12—Song of Solomon 4:14, with Proverbs 7:17.